All these experiences according to show that bread from the flour containing all parts of grain, undoubtedly possesses much higher nutrition value, than bread from a premium flour. At the same time once again it is necessary to emphasize that advantages of a nutrition value of bread from whole grain act especially brightly in the conditions of the monotonous diet containing a significant amount of grain products and smooth out on condition of its sufficient variety.
Use of germs for enrichment of a high-quality flour encountered the difficulty which is that the germ causes a strong rasplyvaniye of dough and deterioration of structure of a crumb in connection with existence in germs of a glyutation. However Greyv and Le-Klerk showed that preliminary soaking of germs in water within several hours gives the chance then to receive the fine bread containing to 10% of wheaten germs and at the same time very good on color, volume, porosity and structure of a crumb.
In all-union scientific research institute of the baking industry baked special dietary proteinaceous white bread of a flour of the first grade with an additive of the dry gluten received by drying on the drum dryer with the subsequent crushing in a disk crusher. Addition of 25% of a dry gluten significantly reduced quality of bread. Its quality was lower in comparison with bread with a crude gluten that, according to authors, is connected with its denaturation in the course of drying at high temperature (the 150th degree. For elimination of shortcomings drying of a gluten needs to be carried out on raspylitelny drying devices.
Pothouses and special food yeast were repeatedly applied to enrichment of bread. The great interest shown from this point of view to yeast is explained by extremely high content in them of protein and vitamins of group B.
The nutrition value of germs of wheat is exclusively great. They contain 33-39% of protein (in terms of dry weight), 21-30% of sugars, 13-19% of lipids, 4,6-6,7% of mineral substances and a significant amount of B1, B2, B6, PP vitamins and group E - respectively 6,2; 1,45; 2,5; 7,5 and 15,8mg %.
The dry not denatured gluten is very perspective and effective for use in bread baking. It increases bread protein content, improves its aroma. However receiving not denatured gluten is economically inexpedient in view of increase of cost of bakery products.
Rich source of protein is the cake received from seeds of sunflower and a cotton. However the most part of works was carried out or with integral seeds of oil-bearing crops, or with the fodder products received from them - waste of oil milling or oil-extracting productions. Now from oilseeds products especially for food of the person are produced. These are the so-called food cakes from seeds of sunflower, a peanut and a cotton containing a significant amount of protein. The research of nutritional value of these proteinaceous products and their influence at addition on nutritional value of wheat flour which is carried out by Jones and Divayn showed that they are very valuable proteinaceous additives which can partially replace high-quality proteins of an animal origin in grain.
Despite all advantages of the high-vitamin flour containing a guard and a germ in the structure it has one shortcoming: does not take out long storage and easily progorkat, especially under adverse storage conditions. Therefore, emphasizing all persuasiveness of arguments about a high nutrition value of such flour, it is necessary to indicate research of cheap, convenient and harmless antioxidants which addition to a flour would ensure its safety the need and would interfere with its rancidification.
Represent a certain interest experiment of England and Canada on change and improvement of the scheme of a grinding of wheat for receiving a high-vitamin flour. As it was shown that with B1 vitamin the guard and a germ are especially rich, English and Canadian millers sought to construct thus the technological scheme of a grinding of grain that whenever possible maximum quantity of these parts of grain got to a flour. Thus special efforts were applied to providing hit in a flour of the guard containing 60% of all tiamin which is available in a flour.
A. A. Zavyalov's experiences showed that at addition to wheat flour of the first grade of 25% of a flour from wheaten germs bread protein content can be doubled almost, and the maintenance of a tiamin and Riboflavinum also raises substantially.
It was by practical consideration shown that contents of cages of an aleyronovy layer only with great difficulty are affected by digestive juice and therefore, despite the considerable contents in these cells of protein and fatty substances, they are a ballast in a certain degree.